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The term “disability” is defined as the inability or the difficulty faced by a person to perform daily activities generally expected of his/her age group. It may be present from birth or may occur anytime during lifetime. Disability covers a broad set of conditions such as impairments, participation restriction, activity limitations and so on.

Persons suffering from any form of disability are unable to perform his/her normal role in the society corresponding to his age and socio-cultural scenario. They should be encouraged to fulfil their role in the society and participate on equal basis with their peers.

It is important that they should be able to focus on their ability instead of their disability. Disabilities may involve:

  1. Mobility and physical impairment- Upper or lower limb disability, inability in co-ordination of body organs

  2. Spinal cord disability- Spinal cord injury

  3. Brain disability- Acquired head or brain injury, traumatic head or brain injury

  4. Visual disability

  5. Hearing disability

  6. Cognitive or learning disability

  7. Physiological disorder

  8. Invisible disability

  9. Social relationship disability

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Calcium Citrate 1000mg […]


HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus – the virus that affects the body’s immune system. When the HIV infection spreads, a person is said to be suffering from AIDS – the abbreviated version of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

Who can get HIV?

Anybody is susceptible to HIV/AIDS. The infection may not show symptoms for as long as 10 years. In spite of suffering from HIV/AIDS, the person can appear healthy and happy for years.

Therefore, the only way to be sure of being diagnosed with HIV/AIDS or not, is to get tested. This way, the patient can get access to early treatment. On-time and appropriate treatment can help him/her stay healthy, live longer and avoid spreading of the virus.

How does HIV virus spread?

HIV spreads through the HIV-infected person’s

  • body fluids

  • semen or vaginal fluids

  • breast milk

It can also spread through

  • blood-to-blood contact

  • sharing needles or

  • having unprotected sex

  • needles used for tattooing or body piercing

HIV does not transmit by sharing utensils, touching, hugging or kissing the infected person on the cheeks. It also does not spread through mosquito bites, door knobs and handles, or toilet seats. Further, contact with tears or sweat have not shown transmission of HIV virus.

People can prevent […]


Neurons generate electrical and chemical signals that act on other neurons to produce thoughts, feeling and actions.

Epilepsy is considered to be a spectrum disorder. It is the fourth most common neurological disorder, wherein clusters of nerve cells signal abnormally. This abnormality in sending signals results in epilepsy.

Such malfunctions cause episodes called Seizures. Neurons in epilepsy signal much faster than they would normally. This excessive electrical activity causes involuntary activities like movement, sensation, emotion and behavior.

Epilepsy can be developed by anyone, at any time. It can affect both men and women, and at every age. The occurrence of epilepsy can be spontaneous and unpredictable, which can interfere with daily life and can cause brain cell damage.

Types of Epilepsy

Focal or Partial Seizures

  • Simple or Partial Seizure– <15% of people have simple seizures. This kind of seizure affects any one area of the brain. It lead to temporary paralysis, visual changes and difficulty in simple movements. It may appear unaware or dazed.
  • Dis-cognitive Seizure– >33% of people have dis-cognitive seizures. This affects specific parts of the brain. It causes mental confusion, loss of memory and loss of awareness during the seizure. This type of seizure often causes unusual, repetitive movements, hand rubbing, swelling, swallowing, walking in circles or chewing.

Generalized Seizures– >30% of people have generalized seizures. This affects both sides of the brain.

  • Tonic Seizure It commonly affects arms, legs and the back. People with this type of seizure have a tendency of falling down because of muscle rigidity. The muscles in […]


Important naturally occurring peptide hormone- Insulin, is produced by beta cells in the pancreas. Insulin acts as a fuel in the body to convert glucose into energy, by absorbing glucose into the cells and help to keep blood sugar levels normal.

Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs when pancreas does not function properly, or no longer produces or makes a good amount of insulin in body. High glucose levels affect and damage various organs and tissues of the body.


Type 1 Diabetes – It is a type of an autoimmune disease, where pancreas does not produce insulin.

Type 2 Diabetes- A type of chronic disease, where body does not use insulin.

Type 3 Diabetes- It is called as Gestational Diabetes, when insulin is less effective during pregnancy.

Risk factors

  • Family history

  • Environmental factors

  • Increasing age

  • Unhealthy eating, poor nutrition

  • Lack of exercise

  • Overweight

  • High BP

  • Exposure to some viral infections

Sign and Symptoms

Warning signs in diabetes are:

  • Frequent urination

  • Weight loss

  • Lack of energy

  • Excessive thirst

  • Blurred vision

  • Slow wound healing

  • Tiredness

  • Vomiting and stomach pain

  • Abdominal obesity

Seek the medical attention, if you see these signs and symptoms

These symptoms can be […]


Pneumonia is an acute illness, and is considered one of the global health’s most solvable problems. It is the inflammation of one or more parts of the lungs, where the air sacs (alveoli) become inflamed, congested and fill with fluids. Pneumonia reduces oxygen exchange in lungs, thus leading to cough, breathlessness or painful breath.
With pneumonia, only the upper respiratory tract gets infected, and the remainder is left unaffected. Inspite of not being a common occurence, pneumococcal disease is a very serious illness. Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia is the most common nosocomial infection in the ICU.
Pneumonia may be caused by bacteria, viral, fungi, parasite infections and non-infectious agents. It is caused by inhaling these germs into the lungs. These germs settle in the lungs, enabling pneumonia to contract
Pneumonia is most likely to infect a person if the person is suffering from cold or flu. This infection is difficult for the body to ward off.
1. The most severe cases of pneumonia are caused by bacteria, especially S. pneumonia and H. influenza.
2. The most common type of viral pneumonia is Syncytial virus.
3. The most common cause of pneumonia in children is Pneumocystic jiroveci.
1. Bacterial – It infects more suddenly, usually after a cold or flu.
2. Non-Bacterial – It infects slowly, and the patient may not feel sick at the onset.
Pneumonia spreads by a number of ways, most commonly by coughing, sneezing, physical contact, blood, etc. Its virus and bacteria are commonly found in nose and throat, thus affecting lungs easily on inhalation.
1. High fever/chills
2. Shortness of breath or rapid breathing
3. Cough
4. Chest pains
5. Rapid increase in heart rate

Other symptoms
1. Nausea
2. Headache and vomiting
3. Tiredness and muscle aches

Pneumonia […]


Cancer leads to morbidity and mortality in the world. Cancer cases are expected to rise by 70% in the next 2 decades. The most common sites of cancer found in men are lungs, colorectum, prostate, stomach and liver, and those in women are breasts, colorectum, lungs, cervix and stomach.

When there is an abnormal cell growth, the condition is called Cancer. This can be a group of more than 100 diseases. If DNA is damaged in normal cell, the cell will either repair the damage or it will die.

But if DNA in cancer cell is damaged, it doesn’t die as it should. Instead, it continues making new cells that the body doesn’t require. The new cells posses the same damaged DNA from where they originated.

These cancer cells gather up and form tumors that invade nearby tissues and push it aside. Not all tumors are malignant. Tumors that are not cancerous are called Benign Tumors, and are seldom life-threatening.

What are the signs & symptoms?

Signs and symptoms of Cancer depend upon the size of the tumor, and the extent to which it affects nearby organs and tissues. In certain parts of the body, even a small tumor can show symptoms. On the other hand, some tumors grow bigger, but may not cause any symptoms.

The growing cancer pushes the nearby organs, tissues, blood vessels or nerves. This puts pressure on tissues, which shows as signs and symptoms. If it is a spreading cancer (metastasized), its signs and symptoms can be seen in different parts of the body.

The symptoms may be fever, fatigue or unexplained weight loss, because cancer cells use up body’s energy supply. Other symptoms include pain, skin changes, change in bowel habits and bladder functions, unusual […]


An interesting fact is that the 208 bones present in your body are your hardest mass of living tissues. Their main function is providing support to your body and protecting your internal organs from injury. Did you know throughout your lifespan, your bones are constantly being broken and formed? In fact, bones build up through an unending process of bone resorption.

This break down and formation of your bones is a process known as bone remodelling. Your bone marrow produces large numbers of blood cells, and is a reservoir of minerals. Interestingly, your bones’ hardness is caused by these minerals. In fact, their mechanical strength is somewhere also caused by your structural protein collagen.

However, there exist conditions when your bones become fragile and porous. This indicates a disease called osteoporosis. Sometimes, bones loose their mineral density due to certain imbalances in the bone process.

Differences found in Osteoporotic Bones:

  • Thin and porous cortical bone

  • Thin, perforated and disconnected cancelleous bone

  • Space in bone marrow

Factors affecting Osteoporosis:

The following factors affect changes in structure and function of the bodies of both men and women. In fact, they result in bone strength reduction (loss of bone density and strength)

  • Genetic make-up, sex, age, race

  • Physical activity

  • Menopausal status or prolonged amenorrhoea

  • Thin body built

  • Smoking and excessive alcohol intake

  • Lifestyle changes with little supplementation of vitamin D and calcium

  • Climate change

  • Long term use of certain medications

  • Excessive intake of vitamin A and proteins

Causes of Osteoporosis:

  • Steroid medications such as prednisolone – Steroids are indicated for […]


Misunderstanding arthritis is not uncommon. Do not mistake it to be an age-related problem. Also, it is commonly mistaken to be a knee joint problem. In reality, arthritis refers to any health condition that is affecting the several joints in your body. In fact, it is our nation’s No. 1 cause of disability.

Arthritis can affect people of any age, sex and ethnic background. Crucial observations have reported that people with less physical activity are affected the most. Also, it is more common in women (26%) than in men (18%).

The term “arthritis” is derived from the Greek words ‘arthro-’ (meaning Joint) and ‘-itis’ (meaning inflammation). Arthritis brings with itself common symptoms like joint pains, swellings, stiffness and difficulties in movement.

Interestingly, these symptoms are unpredictable; they may be chronic or acute. Depending upon severity, symptoms may be mild, moderate or severe. It may also interfere with the person’s ability to manage daily activities.

Regular physical activity could be a boon for arthritis patients. Pain relief, maintaining (or improving) movement and locomotion, and smooth performance of daily activities definitely find influence from light exercises.

One has to understand that no cure is available for arthritis. However, medicines can significantly reduce its symptoms.
In fact, arthritis can cause permanent joint changes. Most often, these changes have visible effects, for e.g. one’s walking pattern changes.

Types of Arthritis

1. Osteoarthritis
2. Inflammatory Arthritis
3. Degenerative Arthritis
4. Infectious Arthritis
5. Metabolic Arthritis
6. Diagnosing Arthritis

Symptoms of Arthritis

  • Pain, swelling and stiffness in joints
  • Inability to move joints properly
  • Red, warm, swollen and painful joints
  • General sickness
  • Unexpected fever, fatigue, weight loss and swollen lymph glands

Factors affecting arthritis

  • Non-Modifiable
  • Males and females above 44 years
  • Females above 14 years
  • Family history
  • Modifiable
  • Obesity
  • Past joint injuries
  • Infections such as Lyme disease
  • Frequent joint activities like kneeling

Interesting Facts about Arthritis

  • Women are more affected than […]

Mental Health

If physiological health receives so much attention, why not mental health? In reality, both physiological and mental health matter equally. Together, they nurture a healthy well-being.

Mental health is almost an amalgam of emotional, psychological and social well-being. It influences the way we think, feel or act, the way we manage stress; and most definitely, the way we make a choice.

Achieving mental health is not really easy. In fact, mental health problems are quite commonly reported. We often forget that mental health is crucial for living longer and happier, and to feel the bliss of being with our loved ones.

Facts about Mental Illness:

  • Children experience mental health problems too! Early diagnosis of mental illness prevents it from interfering with the child’s growth and development.
  • It is only a myth that persons diagnosed with mental illness are violent. Only 3-5% of them turn violent, and that too, in acute cases of mental illness. In fact, severe mental illness sufferers are 10x more likely to get victimized by violence.
  • Employees with mental illness have better attendance, punctuality, motivation, performance, and job tenure (provided they receive effective treatment).
  • Mental illnesses are 100% recoverable.
  • Therapy, rehabilitation and counselling, apart from medications, assist in faster recovery.

Classes of Mental Disorders:

  1. Neuro-developmental Disorders: ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), Learning Disorder
  2. Schizophrenia and other Psychotic Disorders
  3. Bipolar and related disorders
  4. Depressive Disorders
  5. Anxiety Disorders
  6. Obsessive Compulsive Disorders (OCD)
  7. Stress Disorders
  8. Anorexia Nervosa or Binge-eating Disorders
  9. Addictive Disorders
  10. Neuro-cognitive Disorders like Alzheimer’s Disease

Factors of Mental Disorders:

  • Stress
  • Social isolation / loneliness
  • Death of close ones
  • Childhood abuse or trauma
  • Genetic factor
  • Long term physical health
  • Poverty, unemployment
  • Environmental factors like discrimination, injustice, inequalities, etc
  • Poor pregnancy adaptation for child’s mental health


Diagnosis of mental health involves several procedures. Healthcare professionals evaluate it by asking questions about symptoms and medical history, followed by physical examinations. There are no clinical tests […]

Heart Diseases


Heart is the most vital organ of the human body, which requires adequate oxygen in order to contract and pump. This oxygen is obtained via haemoglobin, the reason why sufficient blood flow is important. Through adequate blood supply, the oxygen contained in blood reaches heart, allowing it to pump blood to the entire body through coronary arteries.

Inadequate amount of blood prevents the heart from contracting and pumping regularly. Heart disease is a broad term, referring to a variety of heart conditions, ranging from congenital heart disease to coronary artery disease caused by atherosclerosis.

Types of Heart Disease

Congenital Heart Disease

Disorder in the heart structure present at birth.


Dull to sharp chest pain/discomfort in the heart muscle due to oxygen-rich blood not reaching the heart. Pain may also be detected in neck, jaw, throat, upper abdomen and back.

Heart Attack

Myocardial Infarction often occurs due to atherosclerosis (built up of plaque inside coronary artery, blocking the flow of oxygen-rich blood).


Irregular heart rhythms.


Deterioration of myocardium (heart muscle) leading to heart failure.

Heart failure

Heart cannot pump sufficient amount of blood to meet body’s requirements.

Risk Factors of Heart Diseases

  • High cholesterol (primary risk factor)

  • Tobacco

  • Unhealthy diet

  • Physical inactivity (Obesity)

  • Alcoholism

  • Smoking

  • Medicines and medical procedures

  • Blood vessel inflammation

Approximately 80% of people are affected with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). If risk factors are not avoided or controlled, CVDs lead to premature deaths.

Common Symptoms of Heart Diseases

  • Shortness of breath

  • Pain in chest, arm and breastbone

  • Discomfort radiating to the […]

By |September 28th, 2015|Disease Center, NEWS|0 Comments|